Iodine is an essential trace element, recognized for its traditional role in thyroid hormone synthesis. Iodine is directly incorporated into thyroxine (T4) and the biologically active form of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism and energy production throughout the body and, in turn, affect core body temperature, growth, reproduction, protein synthesis (including the formation of hair and skin), and neuromuscular function.
In addition to its well-known role in thyroid health, iodine has antioxidant activity, and it plays a critical role in intellectual development, endocrine function, and breast and reproductive system health. Approximately 15-20 mg of iodine is concentrated in the thyroid and thyroid hormones, while 70% of the body’s iodine is distributed in other tissues, including the mammary glands, ovaries, eyes, gastric mucosa, cervix, and salivary glands.